Posts Tagged ‘Engineers’

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Nuclear Engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of the breakdown (fission) as well as the fusion of atomic nuclei and/or the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. In the sub-field of nuclear fission, it particularly includes the interaction and maintenance of systems and components like nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, and/or nuclear weapons. The field also includes the study of medical and other applications of (generally ionizing) radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel and/or other related technology (e.g. radioactive waste disposal), and the problems of nuclear proliferation.

Nuclear fission is the disintegration of a susceptible (fissile) atom’s nucleus into two different, smaller elements and other particles including neutrons. Approximately 2.7 neutrons are released per fission, which may cause additional fissions if enough fissionable material is present. Nuclear fission is made by separating one atom or combining two different atoms.

An important field is medical physics, and its subfields nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, health physics, and diagnostic imaging. From x-ray machines to MRI to PET, among many others, medical physics provides most of modern medicine’s diagnostic capability along with providing many treatment options.

Nuclear materials research focuses on two main subject areas, nuclear fuels and irradiation-induced modification of materials. Improvement of three nuclear fuels is crucial for obtaining increased efficiency from nuclear reactors. Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, from studying structural changes to reactor components to studying nano-modification of metals using ion-beams or particle accelerators.

Nuclear engineers and radiological scientists are interested in the development of more advanced ionizing radiation measurement and detection systems, and using these to improve imaging technologies. This includes detector design, fabrication and analysis, measurements of fundamental atomic and nuclear parameters, and radiation imaging systems, among other things.

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Marine Engineering

It is an interdisciplinary field, in which principles of geosciences are used to solve engineering and environmental problems. It connects geology, civil engineering and other fields (e.g. mining, geography, forestry) to provide a versatile set of skills applicable to a wide range of contemporary problems. The UBC program is an accredited engineering program, so our graduates hold full responsibilities as registered engineering professionals. The qualifications of a geological engineer are similar to those of a civil engineer with geotechnical or environmental specialization. However, our graduates have the advantage of better understanding of geological processes.

They carry out site investigations for dams, plants, roads, railways, housing projects, mines and quarries, pipelines, petroleum production, forestry operations and a variety of other things. They interact with civil engineers to design essential parts of projects. They are responsible for environmental assessments or clean-up activities where pollution has occurred. They prospect for minerals, building material resources and drinking water. They carry out hazard and risk assessments and mapping for landslides and earthquakes. No wonder that, with this wide variety of applications, our graduates are rarely out of work.

There is a continuous transition between geology and engineering science and that most of us, as applied earth scientists, operate in this transition.  There are several related professional disciplines:

1.            Engineering Geology is the application of geology to obtain information and understanding of geological structures, materials and processes, as needed for engineering analysis and design.

2.     Geological Engineering is the application of a combination of geology and engineering science to design, involving rock, soil, groundwater and mineral resources.

3.     Geotechnical Engineering is the application of the science of soil mechanics, rock mechanics, engineering geology and other related disciplines to engineering and environmental projects.

4.     Geo-environmental engineering is the application of a combination of geology and engineering science to the solution of environmental problems.

5.     Environmental geology is the application of geology to obtain information and understanding of geological structures, materials and processes, as needed for the solution of environmental problems.

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Agricultural Engineering

Agricultural Engineering is the engineering discipline that applies engineering science and technology to agricultural production and processing. Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines of animal biology, plant biology, and mechanical, civil, electrical and chemical engineering principles with knowledge of agricultural principles.

Agricultural Engineers may perform tasks as planning, supervising and managing the building of dairy effluent schemes, irrigation, drainage, flood and water control systems, perform environmental impact assessments, agricultural product processing and interpret research results and implement relevant practices.

A large percentage of agricultural engineers work in academia or for government agencies such as the United States Department of Agriculture or state agricultural extension services. Some are consultants, employed by private engineering firms, while others work in industry, for manufacturers of agricultural machinery, equipment, processing technology, and structures for housing livestock and storing crops. Agricultural engineers work in production, sales, management, research and development, or applied science. In the United Kingdom the term Agricultural Engineer is often also used to describe a person that repairs or modifies agricultural equipment.

Some of the specialties of agricultural engineers include:

  •     Design of agricultural machinery, equipment, and agricultural structures
  •      Internal combustion engines as applied to agricultural machinery
  •       Agricultural resource management (including land use and water use)
  •      Water management, conservation, and storage for crop irrigation and livestock production
  •       Surveying and land profiling
  •       Climatology and atmospheric science
  •       Soil management and conservation, including erosion and erosion control
  •      Seeding, tillage, harvesting, and processing of crops
  •      Livestock production, including poultry, fish, and dairy animals
  •       Waste management, including animal waste, agricultural residues, and fertilizer runoff
  •       Food engineering and the processing of agricultural products
  •      Basic principles of electricity, applied to electrical motors
  •       Physical and chemical properties of materials used in, or produced by, agricultural production
  •       Bioresearch engineering, which uses machines on the molecular level to help the environment.

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